Morphological, anatomical and biochemical studies on the foliar galls of Alstonia scholaris Apocynaceae. Morphological, anatomical and biochemical alterations in foliar galls of Alstonia scholaris R. Galls occur isolated or agglomerated on the abaxial surface of the leaf. The insect along with the egg deposits some physiologic fluid which act as a stimulant for the induction of the gall. This stimulus brings about hypertrophy followed by hyperplasia of cells next to the location of the deposited eggs. The psyllid presents three nymphal instars, from eclosion of the egg to the adult.
Phenological relationships between two insect galls and their host plants: Aspidosperma australe and A. Although gall diversity in the Neotropical region is immense, comparative studies on the phenology of host plants and their galls are scarce. Gall systems generally require high levels of phenological synchrony between the associated organisms.