Thank you. Reblogged this on Omar7raul's Blog and commented: nice work. I am in Uganda, East Africa. This site is a must for all medics. It has helped me out in many topics. Fingers crossed. Great summary!
Muscles of Facial Expression and Taste (CN VII)
Facial Palsy - Causes - Differential Diagnosis - Management - TeachMeSurgery
Chapter Upper Motor Neuronal Tracts In order to reach the muscles, motor commands generated in the central nervous system must travel on upper motor neurons and synapse with lower motor neurons. Upper motor neuron s UMN are a type of first order neuron. They are unable to leave the central nervous system. The pyramidal tract is a very important upper motor neuron tract. The extrapyramidal tract also consists of upper motor neurons, and is multi synaptic.
Upper motor neuron & Lower motor neuron lesions
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Look for asymmetry in facial shape or in depth of furrows such as the nasolabial fold. Also look for asymmetries in spontaneous facial expressions and blinking. Ask patient to smile, puff out their cheeks, clench their eyes tight, wrinkle their brow, and so on. Old photographs of the patient can often aid your recognition of subtle changes. Check taste with sugar, salt, or lemon juice on cotton swabs applied to the lateral aspect of each side of the tongue.